Prior stress exposure heightens fear learning during Pavlovian fear conditioning. Stress-related increases in ghrelin circulation were shown to be necessary and sufficient for stress to increase fear learning. Ghrelin was found to be upregulated by stress even in the absence of adrenal hormones. Blocking the ghrelin receptor during stress abolished stress-related enhancement of fear memory without blunting other markers of stress. These results suggest that ghrelin is a novel branch of the stress response.  Human studies are needed to translate the use of anti-ghrelin treatments to prevent stress-induced psychiatric disorders.
The use of androgenic anabolic steroids may be associated with development of cholestatic hepatitis and jaundice. Other, more serious hepatotoxicities such as peliosis hepatis and hepatocellular neoplasms are rare but may occur with prolonged use or high dosages. These latter toxicities may be fatal and often not recognized until they become life-threatening. Patients with preexisting liver diseases should be monitored more closely during therapy with anabolic steroids if they are used. If liver function declines or toxicity occurs, therapy should be withdrawn and the cause investigated.
Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone . Certain clinical effects and adverse reactions demonstrate the androgenic properties of this class of drugs. Complete dissociation of anabolic and androgenic effects has not been achieved. The actions of anabolic steroids are therefore similar to those of male sex hormones with the possibility of causing serious disturbances of growth and sexual development if given to young children. Anabolic steroids suppress the gonadotropic functions of the pituitary and may exert a direct effect upon the testes .