A key mission of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing of the Department of the Treasury is the design and printing of . banknotes. The BEP is responsible for producing easily recognizable currency that is difficult to counterfeit. In recent years, the bureau has recognized the modern information technology could lead to entirely new types of counterfeiting threats, and it has requested a number of studies by the NRC to assess these evolving threats. In this new request, the BEP asked the NRC to identify and evaluate significant emerging counterfeiting threats and to assess technologically feasible counterfeit-deterrent features for potential use in new designs. This first report provides an assessment of emerging threats including a wide range of digital imaging and printing techniques. It also presents an analysis of a systems approach to the counterfeiting threat. The second report will offer an evaluation of new banknote features to address these threats.